Sunday, January 24, 2021

Features of 8086 Microprocessor

8086 is a 16bit microprocessor
 Function of processor:
    Control the entire circuit.
    Execute the instruction.
Features of 8086:
  1. Buses:
      i. Address Bus   : 8086 has a 20 bit address bus. Hence it can access 1 MB memory.The address range for this memory is 00000 H to FFFFF H.
      ii. Data Bus       : 8086 has a 16 bit data bus i.e it can access 16bit data in one operation. Its ALU and internal data registers are also 16 bits; hence 8086 is called as a  16 bit microprocessor.
      iii. Control Bus : The control bus carries the signals essential for the various operations like Read, Write, etc.
   2. 8086 supports Pipe-lining:
                           Pipeline is process of fetching the next instruction while executing the current instruction.
                 For eg.
      Advantage of Pipe-lining:
                          Pipe-lining highly improves the performance of the system.
                          During execution (1st instruction) is the branch  instruction occurs (i.e Jump/call) next instruction is invalid. Then instruction and pipe-lining gets fails.
           For eg. 
                      1   E 1   (if branch  :  go to 6)
                      2   F 2    Invalid
                      6  Fetching
                  Because of that instruction (go to 6 ) other instruction gets                          invalid from F 2 to F 5.
  3. 8086 has 2 operating modes:

         Advantage of Multiprocessor:

  •  Speed of processing data is faster.
  • Two programs can run simultaneously.
4. 8086 provide Memory Banks:

  • The entire memory of 1 MB is divided into 2 Banks of 512 KB each.
  • 8086 has a 16 bit data bus hence it should be able to access 16 bit data in one operation.
  • To do so it needs to read from 2 memory location as one memory location carries one byte.
  • However, if both these memory locations are i the same memory chip then the address bus will have to contain two addresses at the same time , which is impossible.
  • To solve this problem, the memory of 8086 is divided into two banks provides 8 bit data.
  • Therefore one banks contains all even addresses called "Even banks", while the other is called "Odd bank" containing all odd address. 

      Ao            Operation
   0       0            R/W 16 bits from both bank
   0       1            R/W 8 bits from Higher bank
   1       0            R/W 8 bits from lower bank
   1       1            No operation (Idle).
5. 8086 supports Memory Segmentation: 

  • Segmentation means dividing into logical components.
  • Here the memory is divided into 4 segments (64 KB X 4) Code, Stack, Data and Extra Segment.
6. 8086 has 256 types of vectored interrupts.

7.8086 has a 16 bit I/O address: 
               It can access 2^16 I/O ports (i.e. 64 KB I/O ports).

Saturday, January 23, 2021

Block diagram and operation of transmitter unit of mobile handset

Block diagram and  operation of transmitter unit of mobile handset

Block diagram of transmitter unit of mobile handset
Block diagram  of transmitter unit of mobile handset

  •  It is a low power unit operating in the frequency range of 824 to 845 MHz.
  • Carrier is obtained from frequency synthesizer and applied to Phase Modulator along with the amplified voice signal.
  • Modulator output is converted using a mixer to final transmitter frequency.
  • Mixer output is applied to Class C amplifier.
  • The final amplifier stage is to design to supply 3W to antenna.
  • The automatic power control circuit controls the o/p power of the transmitter automatically, with the help of power output detector & DC amplifier.
  • Transmitter output is fed to duplexer .
  • Carrier input for the phase modulator & the local oscillator frequency signal for mixer are produced by frequency synthesizer. 
  • Transmitter output power controlled by cell site & MTSO.
  • Receiver picks up the special control signals & sends to APC that sets transmitter o/p power Level.

Thursday, January 21, 2021

What is Joules Law or Joules heating?

 What is Joules Law or Joules heating?

✓ Resistive heating , also known as ohmic heating and Joule heating , is the process of power dissipation.

✓ The passage of an electric current through a conductor increases the internal energy of the conductor converting thermodynamic work into heat.

✓ The phenomenon was first studied by James Prescott Joule in 1841. 

✓ By varying length of the wire and electric current he deduced that the heat observed was proportional to the square of the current multiplied by the electric resistance of the wire. P is directly proportional to I^2 multiple of R.

 This relationship is known as Joule's Law.
✓ The SI unit of energy was subsequently named the joule and given the symbol 'J'. The  known SI unit of power, the watt (W) is equivalent to one joule per second.

Tuesday, January 19, 2021

What is electric Current?

What is electric Current?

What is electric Current? 

✓ An electric current is a stream of charged particles, such as electrons or ions, moving through an electrical conductor or space. It is measured as the total rate of flow of electric charge crossing a region.

✓ The SI unit of current is the ampere, symbol is 'A'.

✓ It is the flow of electric charge across a surface at the rate of one coulomb per second. 

✓ In AC  (alternating current) the flow of electric charge periodically reverses direction. AC is the form of electric power mostly delivered to businesses and residences. 

✓ The usual waveform of an AC  circuit is a sine wave, though certain applications uses alternative waveforms, such as triangular or square waves but these are rare occurrence. 

✓ DC (Direct current ) refers to a system where the movement of electric charge is in only one direction. 

✓ DC is produced by sources such as batteries, thermocouples, solar cells etc.

✓ AC can also be converted to DC through use of a rectifier. 

Sunday, January 17, 2021

What is Frequency and Voltage?

What is Frequency and Voltage?
What is Frequency and Voltage?
✓ Frequency: Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time. Frequency is measured in units of 'Hz' (hertz). One hertz is equal to occurrence of an event per second (or an event repeats once per second).
Formula, f=1/T
f= Frequency
T= Time
✓ Low frequency: It means moving from one source to another source speed of frequency is low per second.
✓ High Frequency: It means moving from source to another source speed of frequency is high per second.

✓ Voltage: Electric potential difference or electric pressure is the difference in electric potential between two points, which is defined as the work needed per unit of charge to move a  charge between the two points is voltage. SI unit of voltage is 'V'. 
✓ Formula : V=IR
V = Voltage
I = Current
R = Resistor

Saturday, January 16, 2021

Electronics Engineer Job in Mumbai

 Electronics Engineer Job in Mumbai 

Pratibha Electronics Pvt Ltd.

Post :- Electronics Engineer.

Salary Offered:-12000 to 20000 Per month

monthQualification:- Diploma pass & Be & Pass Engineering preferred Candidate
Can Apply For This Job Age:-18 – 35

Gender:- & Male preferred

Time 11:00 am - 4:00pm | Monday to SaturdayShift Time :-10:30 am - 6:30 pm (day shift) Weekly Working Days :-6 Days
Weekly of :-Sunday Only Mumbai candidate can apply for this 

job location :- vashi /ghtkoper/dadar/andheri borivali
Contact information:-


Friday, January 15, 2021

Sales and Marketing Engineer (Indoor ) in Meco Instruments Pvt. Ltd.

Sales and Marketing Engineer (Indoor ) job in Meco Instruments Pvt. Ltd.

Qualification: Diploma / Degree in Instrumentation or Electrical or Electronics Engineering 

Experience: Freshers / 1-2 Experienced 

Location:  Candidate from Eastern Suburbs / Navi Mumbai / Thane Preferred 

Apply and more information for :-  Click Here 

Note: Interview will be held at appropriate time with advance intimation by email.Traveling, lodging, boarding and conveyance expenses to be borne by candidate.
Selection will be done as per merits and company management policy. 

Company website :- Click Here 

Company contact information:- Click Here